Cyprus, which was ruled by different rulers, but never in its entire history under Greek rule, was conquered by the Ottomans in 1571 and ruled by them until 1878.As the Ottomans intended to establish total control over the eastern Mediterranean, Venetian domination of Cyprus was unacceptable. In addition to preventing safe passage from Anatolia to Egypt, it also posed a threat to the security of the Ottoman coasts. Although Venice had been warned many times about Cyprus pirates attacking Ottoman ships, nothing changed. Departing from Istanbul, the Ottoman fleet reached Finike and picked up the soldiers waiting for them there, anchoring in Limassol Bay in early July.
After an Ottoman ship carrying sugar and rice from Egypt was captured in 1570 by pirates using Cyprus as a base, the Cyprus campaign was decided upon. After the Ottoman Empire eliminated the Mamluks, Venice began paying tribute for Cyprus to the Ottomans. Because of its trade relations with the Ottomans, France actively worked against the Venetians and discouraged the German principalities from participating in it. The conquest of the island was necessary to complete the Ottoman domination of the eastern Mediterranean.
On the other hand, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha attached particular importance to aid to the Spanish Muslims (Moors) and the Don-Volga canal project and claimed that a campaign to Cyprus could lead to an alliance in the West against the Ottomans. To thwart a possible Western alliance against the Ottomans in the event of a campaign against Cyprus, a broad capitulation treaty was signed with France. The Ottoman envoy Kubad Çavuş voiced his state's grievances over pirate attacks around Cyprus and the Dalmatian coast and demanded the surrender of Cyprus in order for peace to continue. However, under Selim II, the Ottomans had no choice but to conquer Cyprus in order to secure their dominance of the eastern Mediterranean.
Despite all the efforts of the Turkish army, the city did not fall thanks to the efforts and heroism of Marco-Antonio Bragandino, the commander of the castle. The Ottoman Empire tried to keep its relations with Austria and Iran stable in order to avoid an increase in military theatres during the Cyprus campaign. Upon learning of this alliance, the Ottomans fortified the Sanjaks (district) of the southern Bosnian province and increased the number of ships in the navy. The German Emperor Maximilian avoided an alliance, as there was peace between Austria and the Ottoman Empire.